• Mode 4
    • Postal & Courier
    • WTO
    • Negotiations
    • GATS
    • Domestic Regulation
    • Accountancy
    • Advertising
    • Telecom
    • Africa
    • Air Transport
    • Maritime Transport
    • Land Transport
    • Universal Access
    • TiSA
    • Plurilaterals
    • trade
    • investment
    • regulation
    Close 
Document Search

A searchable database of external resources and analysis on trade in services

Negotiating Trade in Services: A Practical Guide for Developing Countries

Arguments in favor of open services markets are becoming increasingly set forth worldwide. This applies in particular to key enabling sectors such as financial services, telecommunications, and transportation, which contribute centrally to a nation's overall economic development. At the same time, the difficulties of opening services markets to foreign competition are becoming evident. Thus, because doing so involves a broad and complex set of policies, regulatory instruments, institutions and constituencies, domestic and foreign as well as public and private. Experience has shown that considerable care must be given to the assessment of the nature, pace and sequencing of regulatory reform and liberalization in order to meaningfully enhances a nation's economic growth and development. This report focus in section two on mapping a strategy for services in national development plans. Section three is devoted to preparing for services negotiations, section four to conducting services negotiations, section five to enhancing the capacity…

Additional Info

  • Type Toolkit
  • Sector General
  • Special Focus Domestic Regulation
  • Geographical Level National
  • Published by The World Bank
  • Year 2009
  • Language English

Trade Competitiveness Diagnostic Toolkit

This Trade Competitiveness Diagnostic (TCD) toolkit provides a framework, guidelines, and practical tools needed to conduct an analysis of trade competitiveness. The toolkit can be used to assess the competitiveness of a country's overall basket of exports, as well as specific traded sectors. It includes guidance on a range of tools and indicators that can be used to analyze trade performance in terms of growth, orientation, diversification, quality, and survival, as well as quantitative and qualitative approaches to analyze the market and supply-side factors that determine competitiveness. The toolkit facilitates the identification of the main constraints to improved trade competitiveness and the policy responses to overcome these constraints. The output of a TCD initiative can be used for a wide variety of purposes. The TCD toolkit is intended for policy makers and practitioners involved in analysis of trade performance and design of trade and industrial policy.

Additional Info

  • Type Toolkit
  • Sector General
  • Special Focus Domestic Regulation
  • Geographical Level National
  • Published by The World Bank
  • Year 2012
  • Language English

Valuing Services in Trade: A Toolkit for Competitiveness Diagnostics

This toolkit provides a framework, guidance, and practical tools for conducting an analysis and diagnostics of the trade competitiveness of a country’s services sector. The proposed methods subsequently identify the main constraints to improved competitiveness and the appropriate policy responses. Valuing Services in Trade has been successfully tested on country-specific assessments and is designed to address a wider audience, including policy makers in developing countries and development practitioners in international organizations, policy-making institutions, and academia. Its modules are valuable for different audiences; full country diagnostics can be undertaken or various parts of the Toolkit can be used to address specific areas of interest to policy makers and experts. A successful diagnostic based on the Toolkit depends on qualitative assessments and information gathered from a wide variety of stakeholders in the country, including government officials and the private sector, as well as on the quantitative analysis. A diagnostic analysis should therefore…

Additional Info

  • Type Toolkit
  • Sector General
  • Special Focus Domestic Regulation
  • Geographical Level National
  • Published by The World Bank
  • Year 2014
  • Language English

Regulatory Assessment Toolkit: A Practical Methodology for Assessing Regulation on Trade and Investment Services

This toolkit provides guidance on how to assess and reform the regulatory policies of service trade industries. The toolkit can help government officials evaluate whether their regulatory framework addresses market failures, achieves public interest goals in an efficient manner, and promotes the development of an efficient domestic services market. Depending on the circumstances and the needs of the authorities, the toolkit can serve different purposes, including supporting regulatory reform, improving regulatory governance, negotiating and implementing trade agreements, and streamlining regulations to attract foreign investment. The Regulatory Assessment Toolkit will be of particular interest to policy makers and government officials from regulatory bodies, experts at development banks and donor agencies, and academics and researchers in the field of economic regulation.

Additional Info

  • Type Toolkit
  • Sector General
  • Special Focus Domestic Regulation
  • Geographical Level National
  • Published by The World Bank
  • Year 2014
  • Language English

Promoting Trade in Services: Analysing Potential Sectors in the EAC

With the world’s growth and development, the importance of services as a share of overall production and employment is increasing quickly. The EAC is no exception: for the past years, trade in services of the region has witnessed increasing importance. Both intra-EAC trade and international trade in services are contributing to the expansion of the region’s economies, as well as improvement of the populations’ well-being. Enhancing trade in services exports in the EAC has great potential to further benefit the region. The purpose of this paper is to thus identify the current opportunities and challenges for the EAC to develop their exports in services, and to provide an insight of the service sectors that could be of top interest to the respective EAC member countries. The paper argues that as a matter of policy, the EAC should identify the services sectors in which they have a comparative advantage for purposes…

Additional Info

  • Type Background Note
  • Sector General
  • Special Focus Domestic Regulation
  • Geographical Level Regional
  • Published by CUTS International
  • Language English

The Impact of Services Trade Restrictiveness on Trade Flows: First Estimates

This paper uses newly released OECD data on services trade restrictions (STRI) to analyse the relationship between services trade restrictions, cross-border trade in services and trade in downstream manufactured goods. A standard gravity model is enhanced by the STRI indices in a cross-section regression analysis. Services trade restrictions are negatively associated with both imports and exports of services. The surprisingly strong effect on services exports is probably explained by a negative relationship between the STRIs and sector performance indices. Consequently, services suppliers are less competitive abroad. A negative relationship is also found between the STRI indices and exports, imports and intra-industry trade in manufactured goods. The statistical significance and the elasticities vary across services and goods sectors in ways that intuitively make sense.

Additional Info

  • Type Working Paper
  • Sector General
  • Special Focus Domestic Regulation
  • Geographical Level National
  • Published by OECD - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
  • Language English

The Trade In Services Agreement: Plurilateral Progress or Game-Changing Gamble?

Trade analysis in the current moment is understandably focused on mega-regional negotiations, but plurilateral talks also deserve our attention. This paper takes plurilateral negotiations leading to a Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) as its focus. It argues that the barriers to trade in services are distinct and their removal consequential; thus inviting careful consideration and, ideally, public debate. Five key questions about TiSA are examined. The answers to these questions are not clear, making this a propitious moment to explore promising avenues for both maximizing the gains and minimizing the costs of services liberalization.

Additional Info

  • Type Background Note
  • Sector General
  • Special Focus Negotiations
  • Geographical Level Multilateral
  • Published by CIGI - Centre for International Governance Innovation
  • Year 2014
  • Language English

Export Policies and the General Agreement on Trade in Services

Compared to its counterpart in merchandise trade, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) of 1947, the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) contains a variety of conceptual innovations. In addition to cross-border supply, the Agreement covers three additional types of transactions, i.e. the supply of services via consumer movements abroad as well as the presence of foreign firms and foreign service professionals in the respective markets. At the same time, the GATS accommodates a range of measures, including the use of quantitative restrictions and discriminatory taxes or subsidies, which are clearly constrained under the GATT. Most notably in the current context, the Agreement offers particularly broad scope for various types of export-related interventions, regardless of ensuing market distortions. The social and economic relevance of such measures, not only in sectors such as education or health, but also in producer-oriented services, including transport, telecommunications or finance, is immediately…

Additional Info

  • Type Working Paper
  • Sector General
  • Special Focus Negotiations
  • Geographical Level Multilateral
  • Published by WTO - World Trade Organization
  • Year 2014
  • Language English

LDC Services Waiver : Measures Notified

This background Note responds to a request by the LDC Group to provide information with regard to certain measures in the professional services sectors by the top-ten WTO Members in terms of trade volume. The information sought relates to: (i) measures of general application notified under GATS Article III:3 ; (ii) measures under economic integration agreements notified under Article V:7, and (iii) c. measures on recognition notified under Article VII:4.

Additional Info

  • Type Background Note
  • Sector General
  • Special Focus Negotiations
  • Geographical Level Multilateral
  • Published by WTO - World Trade Organization
  • Year 2014
  • Language English

Services Trade And Domestic Regulation

The regulatory measures mentioned in GATS Article VI.4, qualification requirements and procedures, licensing requirements and technical standards are mainly related to upfront costs of entering a market. This paper first explains that entry barriers limit the number of firms that can break even in a particular market. The higher the entry barrier relative to the size of the market, the smaller the number of firms that can break even after having incurred the entry cost. In the face of such entry costs, trade liberalisation, defined as a reduction in variable trade costs, would lead to more trade, but also a global market concentration as the average firm size becomes larger. Competition need not be affected, however, since the total number of firms in each country, local plus foreign, will in most cases increase. Nevertheless, trade liberalisation in the face of significant entry barriers would have a negative effect on small…

Additional Info

  • Type Research Paper
  • Sector General
  • Special Focus Domestic Regulation
  • Geographical Level National
  • Published by AERC - African Economic Research Consortium
  • Year 2007
  • Language English

Liberalisation, And Domestic Regulation

The book brings together a series of papers presented at the Third Services Experts Meeting organized by the OECD Trade Directorate and held in Paris in the spring of 2002. Its purpose is twofold. It aims, first, to provide analytical input, based on the considerable experience of the World Bank and the OECD and outside experts on traderelated regulatory issues, to the ongoing WTO round of services negotiations. Second, it seeks to generate greater awareness among sectoral specialists and policymakers of the opportunities offered by the services negotiations to promote and consolidate domestic policy reforms in key service sectors.

Additional Info

  • Type Research Paper
  • Sector General
  • Special Focus Domestic Regulation
  • Geographical Level National
  • Published by The World Bank
  • Year 2003
  • Language English

Services Trade And Investment Liberalisation, And Domestic Regulation

The service sector has become an increasingly important sector in national output and employment of developing countries. For many developing economies and least developed countries (LDCs), services constitute a fast growing and often dominant sector in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), with important forward and backward linkages to other sectors of the economy. With growing global trade and investment flows in services driven by liberalisation and deregulation of economies, technological advances as well as cost and other imperatives, the service sector presents many developing countries with opportunities to diversify their economies, their export baskets and markets to tap emerging segments that could leverage their inherent and acquired sources of comparative advantage, and to address domestic concerns of service quality, accessibility, and economic efficiency. However, growing trade and investment flows in services and the liberalisation and deregulation of trade and investment regimes in several service sectors also raise many regulatory challenges and…

Additional Info

  • Type Research Paper
  • Special Focus Domestic Regulation
  • Geographical Level National
  • Published by CUTS International
  • Year 2008
  • Language English

Services Liberalization And Domestic Regulation: Why Is It Important?

This paper examines the various issues regarding services trade liberalization and domestic regulations and their implications for effective market access with the aim of striking a balance between the potential gains from liberalization and public interest concerns. It will first briefly review some of the key issues in the interface between services liberalization and domestic regulation and examine the different perspectives from developing and developed countries. Next, it will argue that notwithstanding the specific mandate of the multilateral services negotiations in the Doha Round, economic needs tests (ENTs) should be considered as domestic regulations and should be addressed in the current GATS negotiations. This is mainly due to the fact that ENTs proliferate in the services schedules of many countries and are very diverse in terms of their application but they all make market access unpredictable. In this regard, some examples from scheduled commitments in the WTO and in bilateral…

Additional Info

  • Type Research Paper
  • Sector General
  • Special Focus Domestic Regulation
  • Geographical Level National
  • Published by CRNM - Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery
  • Year 2008
  • Language English

The Contribution Of Services To Development And The Role Of Trade Liberalisation And Regulation

The service sector makes an important contribution to gross domestic product (GDP) in most countries, providing jobs, inputs and public services for the economy. Trade in services can improve economic performance and provide a range of traditional and new export opportunities. However, services liberalisation also carries risks, and appropriate regulation and other complementary policies help to ensure that liberalisation delivers the expected benefits. We have reviewed the literature on these issues for six service sectors (tourism, financial services, energy services, information and communications technology and Mode IV). The service sector makes an important contribution to gross domestic product (GDP) in most countries, providing jobs, inputs and public services for the economy. Trade in services can improve economic performance and provide a range of traditional and new export opportunities. However, services liberalisation also carries risks, and appropriate regulation and other complementary policies help to ensure that liberalisation delivers the expected benefits.…

Additional Info

  • Type Working Paper
  • Special Focus Domestic Regulation
  • Geographical Level National
  • Published by ODI - Overseas Development Institute
  • Year 2008
  • Language English

Rapport De La Réunion D’Experts Sur L’Accès Universel Aux Services

La Réunion d’experts sur l’accès universel aux services a eu lieu à Genève du 14 au 16 novembre 2006. Les participants y ont fait part de leurs points de vue sur la manière dont les gouvernements de pays développés et de pays en développement peuvent jouer un rôle actif, aux niveaux national et international et dans les négociations commerciales multilatérales, pour garantir un accès universel aux services essentiels. Ils ont félicité le secrétariat pour son excellent document de référence présenté sous la cote TD/B/COM.1/EM.30/2 et pour le caractère novateur et global de la Réunion, à laquelle avaient Eté conviés des représentants des autorités de règlementation, des décideurs, des responsables de la société civile et des agents intervenant dans les négociations commerciales. Si la Réunion traitait de l’accès universel aux services dans tous les secteurs, des séances spéciales ont néanmoins Eté consacrées à lieu et à l’assainissement, à la santé, à…

Additional Info

  • Type Meeting Report
  • Special Focus Negotiations
  • Geographical Level National
  • Published by UNCTAD - United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
  • Year 2006
  • Language Français

L’Accès Universel Aux Services

De nombreux services sont essentiels à la vie humaine ou présentent d’importantes caractéristiques infrastructurelles et jouent un rôle clef dans la réalisation des OMD. Les télécommunications, la santé et l’éducation ou l’approvisionnement en Energie et les services de lieu en sont des exemples. Dans ces secteurs, les gouvernements doivent veiller à ce que ces services soient correctement assurés, y compris auprès des populations pauvres et marginalisées. Les politiques et les règlementations nationales visant à garantir l’accès universel aux services sont déterminées par différents facteurs, dont la situation Economique et sociale du pays, les objectifs de politique nationale du gouvernement et ses engagements internationaux. La présente note analyse les caractéristiques fondamentales de secteurs de services essentiels, la manière dont les politiques nationales relatives à l’accès universel différent selon les pays et les secteurs, et les mesures qui peuvent être prises au niveau international pour améliorer cet accès. Elle met tout particulièrement…

Additional Info

  • Type Background Note
  • Special Focus Domestic Regulation
  • Geographical Level National
  • Published by UNCTAD - United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
  • Year 2006
  • Language Français
Page 1 of 4